Anita Solhaug

Cell biologist / Toxicologist, Senior researcher, PhD

Toxinology Research Group
Norwegian Veterinary Institute
Elizabeth Stephansens vei 1
1433 Ås
Tel.: +47/419 30 644

Research interests

Toxicology, with the main focus on cellular in vitro systems and natural toxins. Mammalian in vitro cell systems; cell cultures; primary and cell lines, co-cultures. Fish cell lines; establishment, toxicology. Cell signalling mechanisms; cell death, autophagy, inflammation, differentiation, DNA damage, transport. Methods; cytotoxicity / proliferation kits, Flow cytometry, Western blotting, ELISA, Fluorescence-/ confocal- microscopy, EROD.


Studies in biology and chemistry from Sogn and Fjordane University College and Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway (1994 – 2000). Dr. scient. in Toxicology from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway (2000 – 2005). Post doc in cell biology at Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Oslo, Norway (2005 – 2008). Post doc at the Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway (2008 – 2015). Senior scientist at the Norwegian Veterinary Institute since 2013.

My favourite quote

All models are wrong, but some are useful. (George Box)

2022 Highlight

  • Received the Norecopa 3R prize together with my colleagues Mona Gjessing and Hilde Sindre.

Ongoing projects

PARC – European partnership for the assessment of risks from chemicals

NAMC – North Atlantic Microplastic Centre

ToxANoWa – Toxic microalgae in Norwegian waters. Uncovering fish-killing mechanisms of phytoplankton from Scandinavian waters

MucoProtect – Novel bio-mimicking nanocarriers for oral delivery of mucosal vaccines – protection at the first line of defence

ISAV-RBC – Mechanisms of the bining of infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) to erythrocytes

GILLMODEL – Development of an in vitro model to study environmental factors influencing the gill epithelial function (NFR Havbruk 2: 2019-2021)

Bio-DIRECT – Biomarkers and Bioassays for Animal and Fish Research and Diagnostics (SIS 2019-2022)

GutMucus – Effects of Deoxynivalenol, beta-glucan and gliadin on mucus-production and tight junctions in the gut.

Recent projects

FunTox – Fungi and mycotoxins in a one health perspective (SIS 2015-2018)

DONNER – Deoxynivalenol (DON) – Nervous effects reconnaissance (NFR Aurora/Campus France – 2016-2018)

MYCOMIX – Effects of realistic mixtures of mould and mycotoxins on the immune system and assessment of human exposure (NFR 213087).
Toxicological characterization of selected secondary fungal metabolites in Norwegian grain (NFR 185622).


  • Louro H, Vettorazzi A, López de Cerain A, Spyropoulou A, Solhaug A, Straumfors A, Behr A-C, Mertens B, Žegura B, Fæste CK, Ndiaye D, Spilioti E, Varga E, Dubreil E, Borsos E, Crudo F, Eriksen GS, Snapkow I, Henri J, Sanders J, Machera K, Gaté L, Le Hegarat L, Novak M, Smith NM, Krapf S, Hager S, Fessard V, Kohl Y, Silva MJ, Dirven H, Dietrich J, Marko D. Hazard characterization of Alternaria toxins to identify data gaps and improve risk assessment for human health. Archives of Toxicology 2024, 98, 425-469.
  • Solhaug, S.; Gjessing, M.; Sandvik, M.; Eriksen, G.S. The gill epithelial cell lines RTgill-W1, from Rainbow trout and ASG-10, from Atlantic salmon, exert different toxicity profiles towards rotenone. Cytotechnology, 2022.
  • Fosse, J.H., Aamelfot, M., Sønstevold, T., Weli, S.C., Vendramin, N., Petersen, P.E., Solhaug, A., Amundsen, M.M., Heffernan, I.A., Cuenca, A., Christiansen, D.H., Falk, K. Salmon erythrocytes sequester active virus particles in infectious salmon anaemia. Viruses 2022, 14, 310.
  • Sindre, H.; Gjessing, M. C.; Fosse, J. H.; Hermansen, L. C.; Böckerman, I.; Amundsen, M. M.; Dahle, M. K.; Solhaug, A., Establishment and characterization of a novel gill cell line, LG-1, from atlantic lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.). Cells 2021, 10 (9), 2442.
  • Nones, J.; Solhaug, A.; Riella, H. G.; Eriksen, G. S.; Nones, J., Brazilian bentonite and a new modified bentonite material, BAC302, reduce zearalenone-induced cell death. World Mycotoxin Journal 2021, 14 (3), 347-356.
  • Said, A.H.; Solhaug, A.; Sandvik, M.; Msuya, F.E.; Kyewalyanga, M.S.; Mmochi, A.J.; Lyche, J.L.; Hurem, S. Isolation of the Tephrosia vogelii extract and rotenoids and their toxicity in the RTgill-W1 trout cell line and in zebrafish embryos. Toxicon 2020183, 5160.
  • Nones, J.; Solhaug, A.; Riella, G.H.; Eriksen, G.S. Brazilian bentonite and a new modified bentonite material, BAC302, reduce zearalenone-induced cell death. World Mycotox J 2020, In Press.
  • Solhaug, A.; Torgersen, M.L.; Holme, J.A.; Wiik-Nilsen, J.; Thiede, B.; Eriksen, G.S. The Fusarium mycotoxin, 2-Amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (AOD) induces vacuolization in HepG2 cells. Toxicology 2020, 433-434, 152405.
  • Oliveira CAF, Ivanova L, Solhaug A, Fæste CK. Effects of enniatin B1 on lysosomal stability and chaperone-mediated autophagy-related components in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Mycotox Res 2019.
  • Grytting VS., Olderbø BP, Holme JA, Samuelsen JA, Solhaug A, Becher R, Bølling AK. Di-n-butyl phthalate modifies PMA-induced macrophage differentiation of THP-1 monocytes via PPARγ. Toxicology letters 2019, 54, 168-177.
  • Ivanova, L., Fæste, CK., Solhaug, A. Role of P-glycoprotein in deoxynivalenol-mediated in vitro toxicity. Toxicology letters 2018, 284, 21-28.
  • Nones J, Solhaug A, Eriksen GS, Macuvele DLP, Poli A, Soares C, Trentin AG, Riella HR, Nones J. Bentonite modified with zinc enhances aflatoxin B1 adsorption and increase survival of fibroblasts (3T3) and epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2). Journal of Hazardous Materials 2017, 337, 80-98.
  • Bolling AK, Solhaug A, Morisbak E, Holme JA, Samuelsen JT. The dental monomer hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) counteracts lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1β release-Possible role of glutathione. Toxicology Letters 2017, 270, 25-33.
  • Solhaug A, Karlsøen LM, Holme JA, Kristoffersen AB, Eriksen GS. Individual and combined effects of frequently co- occurring mycotoxins on macrophage differentiation and activation. Toxicology in vitro 2016, 36, 120-132.
  • Solhaug, A., Eriksen, G.S, Holme, J.A. Mechanisms of action and toxicity of the mycotoxin alternariol: A review. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology 2016, 119, 533-539.
  • Stanic A, Uhlig S, Solhaug A, Rise F, Wilkins AL, Miles CO. Preparation and characterization of cysteine adducts of Deoxynivalenol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2016, 15 64, 4777-85.
  • Klionsky DJ et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition). Autophagy 2016, 12, 1-222.
  • Solhaug A, Wisbech C, Christoffersen TE, Hult LO, Lea T, Eriksen GS, Holme J. The mycotoxin alternariol induces DNA damage and modify macrophage phenotype and inflammatory responses. Toxicology Letters 2015, 239, 9-21. (NSFT publication prize)
  • Stanic A, Uhlig S, Solhaug A, Rise F, Wilkins A, Miles CO. Nucleophilic addition of thiols to deoxynivalenol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2015, 63, 7556-7566.
  • Solhaug A, Wisbech C, Christoffersen TE, Hult LO, Lea T, Eriksen GS, Holme J. The mycotoxin alternariol induces DNA damage and modify macrophage phenotype and inflammatory responses. Toxicol. Lett. 2015, 239, 9-21.
  • Holme,JA.; Nyvold,HE.; Tat,V.; Arlt,VM.; Bhargava,A.; Gutzkow,KB.; Solhaug,A.; Låg,M.; Becher,R.; Schwarze,PE.; Ask,K.; Ekeren,L.; Øvrevik.J. Mechanisms linked to differences in the mutagenic potensial of 1,3-dinitropyrene and 1,8-dinitropyrene. Toxicol. Rep. 2014, 1, 495-473.
  • Solhaug, A.; Torgersen, M.L.; Holme, J.A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Eriksen, G.S. Autophagy and senescence, stress responses induced by the DNA-damaging mycotoxin alternariol. Toxicology 2014, 326, 119-129.
  • Solhaug, A.; Holme, J.A.; Haglund, K.; Dendele, B.; Sergent, O., et al. Alternariol induces abnormal nuclear morphology and cell cycle arrest in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Toxicol. Lett. 2013, 219, 8-17.
  • Gammelsrud, A.; Solhaug, A.; Dendele, B.; Sandberg, W. J.; Ivanova, L.; Kobach Bølling, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Refsnes, M.; Becher, R.; Eriksen, G. S.; Holme, J. A. Enniatin B-induced cell death and inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 2012, 261, 74-87.
  • Ansteinson, V.; Solhaug, A.; Samuelsen, J. T.; Holme, J. A.; Dahl, J. E. DNA damage, cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induced in BEAS-2B cells by 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). Mutat. Res. 2011, 723, 158-164.
  • Landvik, N. E.; Arlt, V. M.; Nagy, E.; Solhaug, A.; Tekpli, X.; Schmeiser, H. H.; Refsnes, M.; Phillips, D. H.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Holme, J. A. 3-Nitrobenzanthrone and 3-aminobenzanthrone induce DNA damage and cell signalling in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Mutat. Res. 2010, 684 (1-2), 11-23.
  • Rakkestad, K. E.; Skaar, I.; Ansteinsson, V. E.; Solhaug, A.; Holme, J. A.; Pestka, J. J.; Samuelsen, J. T.; Dahlman, H. J.; Hongslo, J. K.; Becher, R. DNA damage and DNA damage responses in THP-1 monocytes after exposure to spores of either Stachybotrys chartarum or Aspergillus versicolor or to T-2 toxin. Toxicol. Sci. 2010, 115 (1), 140-155.
  • Asare, N.; Tekpli, X.; Rissel, M.; Solhaug, A.; Landvik, N.; Lecureur, V.; Podechard, N.; Brunborg, G.; Lag, M.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Holme, J. A. Signalling pathways involved in 1-nitropyrene (1-NP)-induced and 3-nitrofluoranthene (3-NF)-induced cell death in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Mutagenesis 2009, 24 (6), 481-493.
  • Olsen, P. A.; Solhaug, A.; Booth, J. A.; Gelazauskaite, M.; Krauss, S. Cellular responses to targeted genomic sequence modification using single-stranded oligonucleotides and zinc-finger nucleases. DNA Repair (Amst) 2009, 8 (3), 298-308.
  • Holme, J. A.; Gorria, M.; Arlt, V. M.; Ovrebo, S.; Solhaug, A.; Tekpli, X.; Landvik, N. E.; Huc, L.; Fardel, O.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D. Different mechanisms involved in apoptosis following exposure to benzo[a]pyrene in F258 and Hepa1c1c7 cells. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2007, 167 (1), 41-55.
  • Huc, L.; Tekpli, X.; Holme, J. A.; Rissel, M.; Solhaug, A.; Gardyn, C.; Le, M. G.; Gorria, M.; manche-Boitrel, M. T.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase-related Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 activation controls hexokinase II expression in benzo(a)pyrene-induced apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2007, 67 (4), 1696-1705.
  • Landvik, N. E.; Gorria, M.; Arlt, V. M.; Asare, N.; Solhaug, A.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D.; Holme, J. A. Effects of nitrated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and diesel exhaust particle extracts on cell signalling related to apoptosis: possible implications for their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. Toxicology 2007, 231 (2-3), 159-174.
  • Huc, L.; Rissel, M.; Solhaug, A.; Tekpli, X.; Gorria, M.; Torriglia, A.; Holme, J. A.; manche-Boitrel, M. T.; Lagadic-Gossmann, D. Multiple apoptotic pathways induced by p53-dependent acidification in benzo[a]pyrene-exposed hepatic F258 cells. J. Cell Physiol 2006, 208 (3), 527-537.
  • Solhaug, A.; Ovrebo, S.; Mollerup, S.; Lag, M.; Schwarze, P. E.; Nesnow, S.; Holme, J. A. Role of cell signaling in B[a]P-induced apoptosis: characterization of unspecific effects of cell signaling inhibitors and apoptotic effects of B[a]P metabolites. Chem. Biol. Interact. 2005, 151 (2), 101-119.
  • Solhaug, A.; Refsnes, M.; Holme, J. A. Role of cell signalling involved in induction of apoptosis by benzo[a]pyrene and cyclopenta[c,d]pyrene in Hepa1c1c7 cells. J. Cell Biochem. 2004, 93 (6), 1143-1154.
  • Solhaug, A.; Refsnes, M.; Lag, M.; Schwarze, P. E.; Husoy, T.; Holme, J. A. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signals in Hepa1c1c7 cells. Carcinogenesis 2004, 25 (5), 809-819.
  • Anthonsen, M. W.; Solhaug, A.; Johansen, B. Functional coupling between secretory and cytosolic phospholipase A2 modulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha- and interleukin-1beta-induced NF-kappa B activation. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276 (32), 30527-30536.
  • Anthonsen, M. W.; Andersen, S.; Solhaug, A.; Johansen, B. Atypical lambda/iota PKC conveys 5-lipoxygenase/leukotriene B4-mediated cross-talk between phospholipase A2s regulating NF-kappa B activation in response to tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1beta. J. Biol. Chem. 2001, 276 (38), 35344-35351.