Toxinology Research Group
Norwegian Veterinary Institute
Secondary metabolites of marine and freshwater algae – their isolation, purification and detection. Special interest in development of antibodies to recognise the metabolites and using the antibodies to developing immunological methods for detecting metabolites in food such as shellfish for the marine algal metabolites and in water for the freshwater algal metabolites. Especially interested in microcystins, okadaic acid, pinnatoxins, ciguatoxins and azaspiracids.
Studies in biochemistry, chemistry and biology at the University of Oslo/Norway. Professional experience from The Biotechnology Centre of Oslo/Norway 1996-1998 and the Norwegian Veterinary Institute in Oslo 1998-2000. Doctoral degree from the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science Oslo/Norway in April 2005. Scientist at the Norwegian Veterinary Institute since then. Member of the Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food and Environment (VKM) (2018-).
ToxANoWa – Toxic microalgae in Norwegian waters. Uncovering fish-killing mechanisms of phytoplankton from Scandinavian waters (2021-2025).
MucoProtect – Novel bio-mimicking nanocarriers for oral delivery of mucosal vaccines – protection at the first
PreparePIG – Prepare the Norwegian pig population for control of emerging and re-emerging diseases (2022-2025).
Bio-DIRECT – Biomarkers and Bioassays for Animal and Fish Research and Diagnostics (SIS 2019-2022).
PIRE: Advancing global strategies and understanding on the origin of ciguatera fish poisoning in tropical oceans (NSF #1743802/NFR MarinForsk 2018-2022).
MARBioFEED: Enhanced biorefining methods for the production of marine biotoxins and microalgae fish feed (ERA-NET Marine Biotech – 2016-2019)
Target: Targeted strategies for safeguarding the noble crayfish against alien and emerging threats (NFR/243907 – 2015-2019).
FunTox – Fungi and mycotoxins in a «One Health» perspective
ECsafeSEAFOOD: Priority environmetal contaminants in seafood: safety assessment, impact and public perception (EU grant no: 311820) (2013-2017).
CyanoTOX: Development and validation of diagnostic tools for cyanotoxins in Southern Africa (NRC project nr. 196085) (2010-2014).
BIOTOX: Sixth framework EU program “Specific Targeted Research Project” entitled “Cost-effective tools for risk management and traceability systems for lipophilic marine biotoxins in seafood” (EU 2005-2008).
Havbruk: “Marine algal toxins, ecology, analysis and toxicology” – NFR 139593/140 (2000-2004).
- Turner, A.D.; Beach, D.G.; Foss, A.; Samdal, I.A.; Løvberg, K.L.E.; Waack, J.; Edwards, C.; Lawton, L.A.; Dean, K.J.; Maskrey, B.H., et al. A feasibility study into the production of a mussel matrix reference material for the cyanobacterial toxins microcystins and nodularins. Toxins 2023, 15, 27.
- Samdal IA, Sandvik M, Vu J, Sukenthirarasa MS, Kanesamurthy S, Løvberg KLE, Kilcoyne J, Forsyth CJ, Wright EJ, Miles CO. Preparation and characterization of an immunoaffinity column for the selective extraction of azaspiracids. J Chromatogr B 2022, 1207, 123360.
- Sandvik M, Miles CO, Løvberg KLE, Kryuchkov F, Wright EJ, Mudge EM, Kilcoyne J, Samdal IA. In vitro metabolism of azaspiracids 1–3 with a hepatopancreatic fraction from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). J Agric Food Chem 2021, 69, 11322–11335.
- Miller TR, Xiong A, Deeds JR, Stutts WL, Samdal IA, Løvberg KE, Miles CO. Microcystin toxins at potentially hazardous levels in algal dietary supplements revealed by a combination of bioassay, immunoassay, and mass spectrometric methods. J Agric Food Chem 2020, 68, 8016–8025.
- Samdal IA, Strand DA, Ballot A, Rusch JC, Haande S, Løvberg KLE, Miles CO, Vrålstad T. Microcystins in European noble crayfish Astacus astacus in lake Steinsfjorden, a Planktothrix-dominated lake. Toxins 2020, 12, 298.
- Samdal IA, Edvardsen B. Massive salmon mortalities during a Chrysochromulina leadbeateri bloom in Northern Norway. Harmful Algal News 2020, 64, 4–5.
- Samdal IA, Løvberg KE, Kristoffersen AB, Briggs LR, Kilcoyne J, Forsyth CJ, Miles CO. A practical ELISA for azaspiracids in shellfish via development of a new plate coating antigen. J Agric Food Chem 2019, 67, 2369–2376.
- Foss A, Miles CO, Samdal IA, Løvberg KE, Wilkins AL, Rise F, Jaabæk JAH, McGowan PC, Aubel MT. Analysis of free and metabolized microcystins in samples following a bird mortality event. Harmful Algae 2018, 80, 117–129.
- Miles CO, Kilcoyne J, McCarron P, Giddings SD, Waaler T, Rundberget T, Samdal IA, Løvberg KE. Selective extraction and purification of azaspiracids from blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) using boric acid gel. J Agric Food Chem 2018, 66, 2962–2969.
- Leonardo S, Kilcoyne J, Samdal IA, Miles CO, O’Sullivan CK, Diogene J, Campas M. Detection of azaspiracids in mussels using electrochemical immunosensors for fast screening in monitoring programs. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2018, 262, 818–827.
- Rambla-Alegre M, Miles CO, de Iglesia P, Fernandez-Tejedor M, Jacobs S, Sioen I, Verbeke W, Samdal IA, Sandvik M, Barbosa VL, Tediosi A, Madorran E, Granby K, Kotterman M, Calis T, Diogene J. “Occurrence of cyclic imines in European commercial seafood and consumers risk assessment.” Environmental Research 2018, 161, 392–398.
- Egaas E, Samdal IA, Miles CO. “Klimaendringer kan medføre introduksjon av nye alger og bakterier”. Norsk Fiskeoppdrett 2017, 58–59.
- Leonardo S, Rambla-Alegre M, Samdal IA, Miles CO, Kilcoyne J, Diogene J, O’Sullivan CK, Campas M. Immunorecognition magnetic supports for the development of an electrochemical immunoassay for azaspiracid detection in mussels. Biosensors & bioelectronics 2017, 92, 200–206.
- Samdal IA, Løvberg KE, Briggs LR, Kilcoyne J, Xu J, Forsyth CJ, Miles CO. Develoment of an ELISA for the detection of azaspiracids. J Agric Food Chem 2015, 63, 7855−7861.
- Samdal IA, Ballot A, Løvberg KE, Miles CO. Multihapten approach leading to a sensitive ELISA with broad cross-reactivity to microcystins and nodularin. Environmental Science & Technology 2014, 48, 8035–8043.
- Aasen JAB, Espenes A, Miles CO, Samdal IA, Hess P, Aune T. Combined oral toxicity of azaspiracid-1 and yessotoxin in female NMRI mice Toxicon 2011, 57, 909–917.
- Rundberget T, Gustad E, Samdal IA, Sandvik M, Miles CO. A convenient and cost-effective method for monitoring marine algal toxins with passive samplers. Toxicon 2009, 53, 543–550.
- Larsen K, Petersen D, Wilkins AL, Samdal IA, Sandvik M, Rundberget T, Goldstone D, Arcus V, Hovgaard P, Rise F, Rehmann N, Hess P, Miles CO. Clarification of the C-35 stereochemistries of dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 and its consequences for binding to protein phosphatase (vol 20, pg 868, 2007). Chem Res Toxicol 2007, 20, 2020.
- Larsen K, Petersen D, Wilkins AL, Samdal IA, Sandvik M, Rundberget T, Goldstone D, Arcus V, Hovgaard P, Rise F, Rehmann N, Hess P, Miles CO. Clarification of the C-35 stereochemistries of dinophysistoxin-1 and dinophysistoxin-2 and its consequences for binding to protein phosphatase. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2007, 20, 868–875.
- Forsyth CJ, Xu JY, Nguyen ST, Samdal IA, Briggs LR, Rundberget T, Sandvik M, Miles CO. Antibodies with broad specificity to azaspiracids by use of synthetic haptens. J Am Chem Soc 2006, 128, 15114–15116.
- Samdal IA, Aasen JAB, Briggs LR, Dahl E, Miles CO. Comparison of ELISA and LC-MS analyses for yessotoxins in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis). Toxicon 2005, 46, 7–15.
- Miles CO, Samdal IA, Aasen JAB, Jensen DJ, Quilliam MA, Petersen D, Briggs LM, Wilkins AL, Rise F, Cooney JM, MacKenzie AL. Evidence for numerous analogs of yessotoxin in Protoceratium reticulatum. Harmful Algae 2005, 4, 1075–1091.
- Finch SC, Wilkins AL, Hawkes AD, Jensen DJ, MacKenzie AL, Beuzenberg V, Quilliam MA, Olseng CD, Samdal IA, Aasen JAB, Selwood AI, Cooney JM, Sandvik M, Miles CO. Isolation and identification of (44-R,S)-44,55-dihydroxyyessotoxin from Protoceratium reticulatum, and its occurrence in extracts of shellfish from New Zealand, Norway and Canada. Toxicon 2005, 46, 160–170.
- Aasen JAB, Samdal IA, Miles CO, Dahl E, Briggs LR, Aune T. Yessotoxin in Norwegian blue mussels (Mytilus edulis); uptake from Protoceratium reticulatum, metabolism and depuration. Toxicon 2005, 45, 265–272.
- Samdal, I. A.; Olseng, C. D.; Sandvik, M.; Miles, C. O.; Briggs, L. R.; Torgersen, T.; Jensen, D. J.; Cooney, J. M. Profile of yessotoxin analogues in a Norwegian strain of Protoceratium reticulatum. In: Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish Safety, 14th-18th June 2004, Galway, Ireland.
- Samdal, I. A.; Naustvoll, L. J.; Olseng, C. D.; Briggs, L. R.; Miles, C. O. Use of ELISA to identify Protoceratium reticulatum as a source of yessotoxin in Norway. Toxicon 2004, 44, 75–82.
- Miles CO, Wilkins AL, Samdal IA, Briggs LR, Aasen JAB, Cooney JM, Jensen DJ, Hawkes AD, Holland PT, Petersen D, Quilliam MA, Selwood AI, MacKenzie AL, Beuzenberg V, Munday R. Protocertium reticulatum produces numerous yessotoxin analogues. In: Book of abstracts. 5th International Conference on Molluscan Shellfish safety, 14th-18th June 2004, Galway, Irland, 44.
- Miles CO, Wilkins AL, Hawkes AD, Selwood AI, Jensen DJ, Aasen JAB, Munday R, Samdal IA, Briggs LR, Beuzenberg V, MacKenzie AL. Isolation of a 1,3-enone isomer of heptanor-41-oxoyessotoxin from Protoceratium reticulatum cultures. Toxicon 2004, 44, 325–336.
- Miles, C. O.; Wilkins, A. L.; Samdal, I. A.; Sandvik, M.; Petersen, D.; Quilliam, M. A.; Naustvoll, L. J.; Rundberget, T.; Torgersen, T.; Hovgaard, P.; Jensen, D. J.; Cooney, J. M. A novel pectenotoxin, PTX-12, in Dinophysis spp. and shellfish from Norway. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2004, 17, 1423–1433.
- Miles CO, Samdal IA, Aasen JAB, Jensen DJ, Quilliam MA, Petersen D, Briggs LR, Wilkins AL, Rise F, Cooney JM, MacKenzie AL. Evidence for numerous analogs of yessotoxin in Protoceratium reticulatum. Harmful Algae 2005, 4, 1075–1091.
- Samdal IA, Sletten K, Olsen KE, Westermark P. AL 366 – a glycosylated protein of kappa 1b origin in a patient with systemic amyloidosis of predominantly non-parenchymatous distribution. Amyloid – Journal of Protein Folding Disorders 2001, 8, 111–114.
- Bratberg B, Ulvund MJ, Benestad SL, Thu B, Ersdal C, Samdal IA. Patologi og diagnostikk av scrapie. Norsk Veterinærtidsskrift 2000, 112, 359–367.
- Samdal IA. Yessotoxins in algae and mussels – Studies on its sources, disposition, and levels. Thesis for the degree of Doctor Scientiarum in biochemistry and toxinology at the Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Oslo, Norway, 2005.
- Samdal IA. Karakterisering av en amyloid immunoglobin lett kjede fra en pasient med myelomatose assosiert med AL amyloidose. Thesis for the degree of Cand.Scientiarum in biochemistry at the Department of Biochemistry/Biotechnology Centre of Oslo, University of Oslo, Norway, 1998.