Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a disease and global public health issue associated with a range of neurological, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular symptoms in humans resulting from the consumption of fish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). It is the most frequent non-bacterial food and seafood-related poisoning. The disease has originally been described as a tropical phenomenon since CTXs are produced by benthic single-celled dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus, which reside as epiphytes on macroalgae or damaged corals. Thus, in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world alone the number of people that suffer from CFP has been estimated to be 50,000–500,000, although the true number is difficult to ascertain due tounder-reporting. The area in which Gambierdiscus spp. have been identified and CFP outbreaks reported seems to be expanding. Gambierdiscus spp. have already been found in the Southeastern Mediterranean, and several cases of CFP have occurred on the Canary Islands and in Israel. Additionally, through the globalisation of trade the distribution and consumption of fish sourced from areas with endemic ciguatera is increasing, and outbreaks of CFP have been reported in temperate regions such as Germany, Great Britain and New York, from consumption of imported fresh fish.
The primary objective of the Norwegian part of the PIRE project is to contributeto the understanding of the complex toxin chemistry behind ciguatera fishpoisoning thereby enabling future management strategies.
The secondary objectives of the Norwegian part of the project are:
- Contribute to the characterization of the meta-metabolome of Gambierdiscus species
- Contribution to the structural elucidation of key algal and fish metabolites of CTX
- Determination of CTXs kinetics and biotransformation products in fish
- Develop antibodies for the detection of CTXs in fish
Project participants at NVI:
Ingunn Anita Samdal
Christiane Kruse Fæste
CiguaPIRE is a five year project (2018-2022) supported by National Science Foundation (NSF #1743802) and Norwegian Research Council (NFR MarinForsk #279247).
The international part of the project is led by Alison Robertson from the University of South Alabama, and the project are involving partners from the Florida Gulf Coast University, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, the University of the Virgin Islands, the University of Texas-Austin in USA, the Center for Environmental Studies of Cienfuegos (CEAC) in Cuba, the Norwegian Veterinary Institute and the University of Oslo in Norway, the City University of Hong Kong in China, the Heriot-Watt University in United Kingdom, the Center for Marine Ecosystems Research in Australia and the National Research Council in Canada.
- Mudge EM, Miles CO, Ivanova L, Uhlig S, James KS, Erdner D, Fæste CK, McCarron P, Robertson A. Ciguatoxin C-CTX-5/6 identified as the basal source of ciguatera poisoning in the Caribbean. Comm. Biol. 2022 (under review)
- Gwinn JK, Robertson A, Ivanova L, Fæste CK, Kryuchkov F, Uhlig S. Identification of in vitro phase I brevetoxin (BTX-2) metabolites in northern Gulf of Mexico fish and human liver microsomes by UHPLC-HRMS(/MS) and comparison across species. Toxicon X, 2022 (under review)
- Mudge, E.M., Meija, J., Uhlig, S., Robertson, A., McCarron, P., and Miles, C.O. Production and stability of oxygen-18 labeled Caribbean ciguatoxins and gambierones. Toxicon 2022; 211: 11–20.
- Kryuchkov, F., Robertson, A., Mudge, E.M., Miles, C.O., Van Gothem, S., Uhlig, S. Reductive amination for LC-MS signal enhancement and confirmation of the presence of caribbean ciguatoxin-1 in fish. Toxins 2022, 14, 399.
- Gwinn, J. K.; Uhlig, S.; Ivanova, L.; Fæste, C. K.; Kryuchkov, F.; Robertson, A., In vitro glucuronidation of Caribbean ciguatoxins in fish: first report of conjugative ciguatoxin metabolites. Chemical Research in Toxicology 2021, 34 (8), 1910-1925.
- Kryuchkov, F.; Robertson, A.; Miles, C.O.; Mudge, E.M.; Uhlig, S. LC–HRMS and chemical derivatization strategies for the structure elucidation of Caribbean ciguatoxins: Identification of C-CTX-3 and -4. Marine Drugs 2020, 18, 182–195.
- Uhlig S, Kryuchkov F, Gwinn JK, Ivanova L, Fæste CK, Miles CO, Mudge EM, Rise F, Samdal IA, Sandvik M, Robertson A. CiguaPIRE: Norwegian contribution to advancing the global understanding of ciguatera. EuroCigua International Workshop, 14.-15-10.2020, virtual meeting
- Gwinn J, Uhlig S, Ivanova L, Fæste CK, Kryuchov F, Robertson A. Glucuronidation of Caribbean Ciguatoxins: A Novel Biotransformation Pathway in Reef Fish. SETAC North America 41th Annual Meeting, 15.-19.11.2020, Fort Worth, TX, USA
- Gwinn J, Robertson A, Ivanova L, Fæste CK, Kryuchkov F, Uhlig S. Cross-species comparison of brevetoxin (PbTX-2) in vitro Phase I metabolism in northern Gulf of Mexico fish and human liver microsomes. ICHA 2021 – International Conference of Harmful Algae, 10.-15.10.2021, La Paz, Mexico.
- Gwinn J, Uhlig S, Ivanova L, Fæste CK, Kryuchkov F, Robertson A. In vitro glucuronidation of Caribbean ciguatoxins (C-CTX-1/-2) in reef fish: First identification of conjugated CTX metabolites. ICHA 2021 – International Conference of Harmful Algae, 10.-15.10.2021, La Paz, Mexico.
- Gwinn J, Robertson A, Ivanova L, Fæste CK, Kryuchkov F, Uhlig S. Cross-species comparison of brevetoxin (BTX-2) in vitro Phase I biotransformation in northern Gulf of Mexico fish and human liver microsomes. 11th U.S. Symposium on Harmful Algae, 23.-28.10.2022, Albany, NY, USA.
- Mudge EM, Miles CO, Ivanova L, Uhlig S, James KS, Erdner D, Fæste CK, McCarron P, Robertson A. LC-HRMS profiling and chemical characterization of ciguatoxins in Gambierdiscus spp. isolated from the Caribbean. 11th U.S. Symposium on Harmful Algae, 23.-28.10.2022, Albany, NY, USA.